Kalaburagi district is on of the three districts that were transferred from Hyderabad State to Karnataka state at the time of re-organization of the state in 1956. The district is one among the 30 districts of Karnataka State. It is located in the Northern part of the state and lies between 76°.04′ and 77°.42 east longitude, and 17°.12′ and 17°.46′ north latitude,covering an area of 10,951 km². It is bounded on the west by Bijapur district of Karnataka and Sholapur district of Maharashtra, on the west by RangaReddy and Medak district of Telegana State, on the north by Bidar district and Osmanabad district of Maharashtra and on the south by Yadgir district of Karnataka.
Kalaburagi is famous for toordal Pigeon pea and the limestone deposits are more in Kalaburagi District. As per Census 2011, Kalaburagi City is an Urban Agglomeration coming under category of Class I UAs/Towns.
The District was under the rule of Nijam s of Hyderabad before independence. The district has a rich background of knowledge and culture. The existence of university at Nagai in Chitapur, Vignaneeshwaras Mitakshara, Nrupatungas Kavirajmarg and the religious and social revolution led by Shivsharanas and the Sufi saint Banda Nawaz are all evidence of it. However, due to erratic rainfall and continuous occurrence of droughts in the 19th century the life of the people was never smooth and secure. Further during the Nizams period, the district could not develop due to the negligence and inefficient administration. The distance was also a factor contributing to it. Thus it was one of the most backward districts when it joined the old Mysore State (Fact Finding Committee 1954). This position has not changed even after five decades.
Kalaburagi is situated in Deccan Plateau located at 17.33°N 76.83°E and the general elevation ranges from 300 to 750 meters above mean sea level. Two main rivers, Krishna and Bhima, flow in the district. Black soil is predominant soil type in the district. The district has a large number of tanks which, in addition to the rivers, irrigate the land. The Upper Krishna Project is major irrigation venture in the district. Bajra, toor, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower, sesame, castor bean, black gram, jowar, wheat, cotton, ragi, Bengal gram, and linseed are grown in this district.
The weather in Kalaburagi consists of 3 main seasons. The summer which spans from late February to mid June. It is followed by the south west monsoon which spans from the late June to late September heavy rainfall may go up to 750mm. It is then followed by dry winter weather until mid January. Barring the hot summer months, the salubrious weather of Kalaburagi makes a visit to this historical city a pleasant one. Temperatures during the different seasons are:
- Summer : 38 °C to 44 °C
- Monsoon: 27 °C to 37 °C
- Winter : 11 °C to 26 °C
According to the 2011 census Kalaburagi district has a population of 2,564,892. The district has a population density of 233 inhabitants per square kilometre (600/sq mi). Kalaburagi has a sex ratio of 962 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 65.65%. Kalaburagi District comprises of 7 talukas…
Kannada and Urdu are the prominent languages spoken in this district. Hinduism and Islam are principle religions followed in this district. The main cuisine of the district are
- Jolada Rotti: Jolada Rotti or Jawar ki rotti is the staple diet of the region. It is prepared from jowar flour. Jolada Rotti is served with a traditional curry (which vary in ingredients and types) and spiced peanut powder (called “Shenga Chutney Pudi”). Generally, the food in Gulbarga is believed to be very spicy when compared with the rest of the state.
- Bele Hoorana Holige :This is a sweet which is a specialty in the place and prepared on all festivals. It is kind of stuffed pancake. Chickpeas and Jaggery are ground and stuffed into wheat flour and then cooked. This is served with Mango pulp as a side dish.
- Tahari :Tahari is similar to pulao and is one of the famous dish in Gulbarga. Tahari is prepared by adding the meat to the rice, as opposed to the traditional Biryani where the rice is added to the meat. It is very tasty and similar to Biryani in taste and texture.
Kalaburagi has two Universities and is the house of only Central University of Karnataka, which is located in Kadaganchi. The other university is Gulbarga University. Kalaburagi also has three engineering Colleges, a Govt Medical College, ESIC Medical College, a Private Medical college, a Fine Arts college, several pharmacy colleges and degree colleges. Kalaburagi is fast emerging as an educational hub of North Karnataka.
Kalaburagi is home for two ex-chief ministers of Karnataka, namely Late Veerendra Patil (1968–1971, 1988–1990) and N. Dharam Singh(2004–2006) belonging to the Congress party.
Kalaburagi city is well connected by road and rail from Bangalore,Hyderabad, Mumbai & other major cities.
- Local Transport : Taxis and auto rickshaws are available for getting around the city at fairly reasonable rates. NEKRTC city buses also ply within the city and also go to the nearby towns and villages.
- Long Distance Bus Routes :KSRTC runs the bus service to other cities and villages. Also there are plenty of private bus services. The Bidar-Srirangapatna state highway made travel easy to Bangalore, and neighboring states of Maharashtra, Goa. There are many private services running Volvo buses between Bangalore-Kalaburagi,Mumbai-Kalaburagi.
- Railways : Kalaburagi is well served by major rail lines and is connected to all major parts of India such as Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Ahmadabad, Rajkot, Agra, Bhopal, Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Trivandrum, Bhubneshwar etc.