The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced, killing more than 8 million people a year around the world. More than million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use while around 1.2 million are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke. Around 80% of the 1.1 billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle income countries, where the burden of tobacco-related illness and death is heaviest. Tobacco use contributes to poverty by diverting household spending from basic needs such as food and shelter to tobacco.
Tobacco burden in India
Tobacco is one of the greatest threats to the health and wellbeing of all citizens in India. It is a common risk factor for the development of most of non communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders and cancer. The GATS-II conducted in 2016-17 showed that in India, lO.7% of all adults smoke while 21.4o/o of all adults use smokeless tobacco. Tobacco not only has adverse effects on the individual who is using it but also affects the people around through second hand smoke.
Health Burden of Tobacco
- Cancer of oral cavity, tongue, larynx and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and lungs.
- Cardio-vascular Diseases and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases [COPDs] linked with the Tuberculosis.
- 40% of TB and other related diseases are attributed to tobacco consumption.
- Oral diseases
- Low-birth weight babies
- Reduced fertility and sexual impotence among men.
- Early ageing and wrinkling of skin.
- Pre-mature deaths
- Cancers: 50% of cancers in males and 20% cancers in females are attributed to tobacco use
- Majority of cardio-vascular and lung disorders
Burden of Second Hand Smoke
Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people bum tobacco products such as cigarettes, bidis and hookah. There are more than 7000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, of which at least 25% are known to be harmful and at least 69 are known to cause cancer. As per the WHO Report-
- In adults, second-hand smoke causes serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including coronary heart disease and lung cancer. In infants, it raises the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. In pregnant women, it causes pregnancy complications and low birth weight.
- Almost half of children regularly breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke in public places.
- Second-hand smoke causes more than 1.2 million premature deaths per year.
- 65,000 children die each year from smoke.
Attributable to second-hand To curb this menace Urban Development Department has issued a declaration to keep all the restaurants smoke free. Further, to protect the interest of nonsmokers a provision of “Designated Smoking Area” has to be established in the restaurants with seating capacity of 30 or more. These DSAs have to comply with the necessary and mandatory provisions as mentioned in the COTPA Act 2003. The DTCC shall have the right of inspecting and providing the necessary support in establishment of DSAs at district level.